Carducci Art Law | World Heritage
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World Cultural and Natural Heritage 

With 192 States Parties the UNESCO 1972 Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage is the most widely ratified convention on the protection of both cultural and natural heritage.

Each State Party may seek the inscription on the World Heritage List of cultural (monuments, groups of buildings and sites) and natural heritage (natural features, geological and physiographical formations, natural sites) which is situated on its territory and is of an outstanding value

Professor Carducci can assist governments, public and private entities, by resolving disputes (as arbitrator or mediator) or providing expert  advice (as expert for legal opinions) or advice and party’s representation (as legal counsel) as to the various legal issues that the implementation of this Convention raises, primarily the following


For States Parties, as to the preparation of nominations, implementation and compliance with the Convention


For the Intergovernmental World Heritage Committee as to i) its constitution and operation; ii) its power with regard to the inclusion and deletion of properties from the World Heritage List (and the List of the World Heritage in Danger)


Duties to protect for the territorial States Parties and duties of the international community as a whole to cooperate

Such duties can be far-reaching and impact also on the obligations of a state as to the cultural and natural resources on its territory with regard to other states or foreign investors in international economic and investment law


As to his publications specifically on the World Heritage Convention, see 

i) G.Carducci, National and International Protection of the Cultural and Natural Heritage;

ii) G.Carducci, The 1972 World Heritage Convention in the Framework of other UNESCO Conventions on Cultural Heritage

Published in: A Commentary of the 1972 World Heritage Convention, Oxford University Press p.103-146, p.363-376, 2008

For the sake of clarity, under the World Heritage Convention

« Cultural Heritage » means:

monuments: architectural works, works of monumental sculpture and painting, elements or structures of an archaeological nature, inscriptions, cave dwellings and combinations of features, which are of outstanding universal value from the point of view of history, art or science;

groups of buildings: groups of separate or connected buildings which, because of their architecture, their homogeneity or their place in the landscape, are of outstanding universal value from the point of view of history, art or science;

sites: works of man or the combined works of nature and man, and areas including archaeological sites which are of outstanding universal value from the historical, aesthetic, ethnological or anthropological point of view.


« Natural Heritage » means:

natural features consisting of physical and biological formations or groups of such formations, which are of outstanding universal value from the aesthetic or scientific point of view;

geological and physiographical formations and precisely delineated areas which constitute the habitat of threatened species of animals and plants of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science or conservation;

natural sites or precisely delineated natural areas of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science, conservation or natural beauty.